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The Murder of History PDF: K.K. Aziz's Brilliant Analysis of Pakistani History Books


The Murder of History by K.K. Aziz: A Critical Review




History is often said to be written by the victors, but what happens when history is written by the losers, or worse, by those who have no stake in it? This is the question that K.K. Aziz, a renowned Pakistani historian, tries to answer in his book The Murder of History: A Critique of History Textbooks Used in Pakistan. In this book, he exposes the systematic distortion and manipulation of history in Pakistan, and its devastating effects on the nation's identity, culture, and politics. In this article, I will provide a brief overview of the book, its main arguments, its strengths and weaknesses, and my personal opinion and recommendation.




the murder of history by kk aziz pdf download


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Introduction




Who was K.K. Aziz?




K.K. Aziz, or Khursheed Kamal Aziz, was born in 1927 in British India, and died in 2009 in Pakistan. He was a prolific historian, who wrote over 50 books on various aspects of South Asian history, especially on Pakistan and its founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He received his education from prestigious institutions in India, Britain, and Germany, and taught at several universities in Pakistan and abroad. He also served as an advisor to Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in the 1970s, but later resigned and returned his state award in protest against the military dictatorship of General Zia-ul-Haq. He lived in exile for many years, until he returned to Pakistan in 2008, a year before his death.


What is the book about?




The book The Murder of History was published in 1993 by Vanguard Books in Lahore. It is a critique of 66 history textbooks used in Pakistani schools and colleges from grade 5 to grade 14. Aziz examines these textbooks for their accuracy, objectivity, balance, and coverage of historical facts and events. He finds that these textbooks are full of errors, omissions, distortions, fabrications, and propaganda. He argues that these textbooks are not only poor quality academic works, but also dangerous tools for indoctrinating young minds with false and biased views of history.


Why is it important?




The book is important because it exposes a serious problem that affects the education and development of millions of Pakistani students and citizens. Aziz shows that by presenting a distorted version of history, these textbooks create a false sense of national pride and identity, based on myths, lies, and hatred. He warns that this can lead to ignorance, intolerance, extremism, violence, and isolation from the rest of the world. He also shows that by ignoring or suppressing the rich and diverse history of Pakistan's regions, cultures, religions, and peoples, these textbooks deprive the nation of its true heritage and potential.


Main arguments of the book




The distortion of history in Pakistan




In his book, Aziz identifies three main sources of distortion in Pakistani history textbooks: textbooks themselves, historians who write them, and politicians who control them.


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The role of textbooks




Aziz analyzes the content, structure, style, and sources of the textbooks he reviews. He finds that they are full of factual errors, such as wrong dates, names, places, and events. He also finds that they are full of omissions, such as ignoring or minimizing the contributions of non-Muslims, non-Punjabis, women, and minorities to Pakistan's history. He also finds that they are full of distortions, such as exaggerating or inventing the achievements of Muslims, Punjabis, men, and majorities in Pakistan's history. He also finds that they are full of fabrications, such as creating false heroes, villains, and narratives to suit a particular ideology or agenda. He also finds that they are full of propaganda, such as glorifying war, violence, and martyrdom, and demonizing India, Hindus, and the West. He also finds that they are poorly written, poorly organized, poorly illustrated, and poorly referenced.


The role of historians




Aziz criticizes the historians who write these textbooks for their lack of professionalism, integrity, and competence. He accuses them of being ignorant, lazy, dishonest, and biased. He says that they are ignorant because they do not have adequate knowledge or training in history or historiography. He says that they are lazy because they do not do proper research or verification of their sources and facts. He says that they are dishonest because they deliberately manipulate or falsify history to suit their personal or political interests. He says that they are biased because they follow a narrow and sectarian view of history that excludes or marginalizes other perspectives and voices.


The role of politicians




Aziz blames the politicians who control the education system and the curriculum for the state of history in Pakistan. He says that they use history as a tool for creating a false sense of nationalism and patriotism among the masses. He says that they use history as a weapon for spreading hatred and fear among the people against their perceived enemies. He says that they use history as a means for legitimizing their own power and authority over the people. He says that they use history as a way for diverting the attention of the people from the real issues and problems facing the country.


The consequences of historical falsification




In his book, Aziz warns of the dire consequences of historical falsification in Pakistan. He says that it has negative impacts on the nation's identity, culture, and politics.


The loss of identity and culture




Aziz argues that by presenting a distorted version of history, the textbooks deprive the Pakistani people of their true identity and culture. He says that by ignoring or suppressing the rich and diverse history of Pakistan's regions, cultures, religions, and peoples, the textbooks create a false sense of homogeneity and uniformity among the nation. He says that by exaggerating or inventing the role of Islam and Urdu in Pakistan's history, the textbooks alienate and antagonize the non-Muslims and non-Urdu speakers in the country. He says that by glorifying or fabricating the links with Arabia and Central Asia in Pakistan's history, the textbooks disconnect and isolate the people from their own roots and heritage in South Asia.


The rise of extremism and intolerance




Aziz argues that by presenting a distorted version of history, the textbooks foster extremism and intolerance among the Pakistani people. He says that by glorifying war, violence, and martyrdom in Pakistan's history, the textbooks encourage aggression and militancy among the youth. He says that by demonizing India, Hindus, and the West in Pakistan's history, the textbooks promote hatred and fear among the people against their neighbors and the world. He says that by excluding or marginalizing the non-Muslims, non-Punjabis, women, and minorities in Pakistan's history, the textbooks breed intolerance and discrimination among the people against their fellow citizens and human beings.


The isolation fr


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